Background; globally, an estimated 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014, compared to 108 million in 1980. The global prevalence (age-standardized) of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980, rising from 4.7% to 8.5% in the adult population. This reflects an increase in associated risk factors such as being overweight or obese. Over the past decade, diabetes prevalence has risen faster in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries.
Diabetes caused 1.5 million deaths in 2012. Higher-than-optimal blood glucose caused an additional 2.2 million deaths, by increasing the risks of cardiovascular and other diseases. Forty-three percent of these 3.7 million deaths occur before the age of 70 years. The percentage of deaths attributable to high blood glucose or diabetes that occurs prior to age 70 is higher in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries.
Source: World Health Organization – Diabetes country profiles, 2016
A review of some research on diabetes in some East Africa countries shows that there is increasing prevalence, complications and co-morbidity. It is projected that ‘proportional change in number of people with diabetes between 2013 and 2035’ will be 133%, 166.9% and 123.5% for Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania respectively (Guariguata et al, 2014). If this is used to represent the whole of East Africa, it would mean that the region is to experience an average of 141.1% increase in the number of diabetes cases by 2035 if no urgent action is taken. In Uganda a study diabetes trends (Bahendeka et al 2016) found that virtually one in two adults (48.9%) with diabetes was undiagnosed and not aware of their status. A similar local area study in northern Tanzania (Stanifer et al, 2016) made similar findings and found prevalence of glucose impairment of 21.7% among diabetic people. In relation to diabetes complications, a study in Tanzania by Janmohamed et al (2013) in a diabetes clinic in Mwanza, Tanzania found 83.7% prevalence of chronic kidney disease and 80% prevalence of significant albuminuria among diabetes patients and none of them was aware of their condition. All these indicate high prevalence of complications and ignorance among affected people, which means high likelihood of late diagnosis and complications.
Risk factor of diabetes and others NCDs
Type 1. The exact causes of type 1 diabetes are unknown. It is generally agreed that type 1 diabetes is the result of a complex interaction between genes and environmental factors, though no specific environmental risk factors have been shown to cause a significant number of cases. The majority of type 1 diabetes occurs in children and adolescents.
Type 2. The risk of type 2 diabetes is determined by an interplay of genetic and metabolic factors. Ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and previous gestational diabetes combine with older age, overweight and obesity, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and smoking to increase risk.
Excess body fat, a summary measure of several aspects of diet and physical activity, is the strongest risk factor for type 2 diabetes, both in terms of clearest evidence base and largest relative risk. Overweight and obesity, together with physical inactivity, are estimated to cause a large proportion of the global diabetes burden. Higher waist circumference and higher body mass index (BMI) are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, though the relationship may vary in different populations. Populations in South-East Asia, for example, develop diabetes at a lower level of BMI than populations of European origin .
Several dietary practices are linked to unhealthy body weight and/or type 2 diabetes risk, including high intake of saturated fatty acids, high total fat intake and inadequate consumption of dietary fiber. High intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, which contain considerable amounts of free sugars, 1 increases the likelihood of being overweight or obese, particularly among children. Recent evidence further suggests an association between high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
Early childhood nutrition affects the risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. Factors that appear to increase risk include poor fetal growth, low birth weight (particularly if followed by rapid postnatal catch-up growth) and high birth weight .
Active (as distinct from passive) smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, with the highest risk among heavy smokers. Risk remains elevated for about
Result for Burundi
During the period of our study, the CHUK hosted 1594 patients in Hospital,571 in Resuscitation, and 798 in surgery are respectively 591 (37.08%), 89 (15.58%) and 59(7.39%) patients with NCDs. This corresponds to 739 patients included in this study,an overall prevalence of 24.94%, which amounts 31.40% if we take into account only Medical and Resuscitation services traditionally recognized as services hosting the NCDs. The mean age of these patients was 54.92 ± 16.8 years with a sex ratio of 0.9.The reason for hospitalization of the included patients was the NCDs, in 93,78% and an illness infectious in 6.22%. The decompensation factor was inadequate medication in 57.65%, infectious disease in 32.75%, therapeutic nonobservance in 6.36%.A combination of two factors was also possible. Taking into account only the reason hospitalization, cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic, respiratory chronic and cancer alone accounted for 87.01% of NCDs. According to diagnoses retained, metabolic diseases accounted for44.38%, Cardiovascular and their complications accounted for 59.27%, respiratory diseases 10.82%, and cancerous diseases 5.28%. In the same patient, we could have one or several co-morbidities in the form of NCD complications in 59.41% or associated pathologies. The table below summarizes the prevalence of these NCDs
The major objective of the Capacity Building workshop is to increase the skills and capacity and interest of media and other partners to provide a wider media coverage and an extensive communication and publicity on NCDs. The workshop specifically focuses on;
- Educating the media about NCDs and the need to create awareness on them
- Educating the NCD experts/advocates on how media works and how to work with it to communicate about NCDs.
- Informal engagement meetings to recruit partners
- Media engagement workshop
- Mutual capacity development workshop (and media engagement)
- Monthly planning meetings for theme content development and review
Outcome of workshop
The participants had extensive knowledge on risks factor, prevention and control of diabetes and others NCDs
Journalists agreed to prioritize Diabetes and NCDs topics in their TV, Radio program and News paper
PLWNCDs accepted to go on radio and TV to share their NCDS sluggers and experiences
Participants accepted to advocate the government’s action on NCDs
MoH agreed to help BNCDA in order to increase awareness on NCDs and take our voices so far
Journalist and NCDs experts have concluded a strong relationship
Author; Anicet NTISUMBWA